locking and concurrency in python, part 2

Previously, I created a "MultiLock" class for managing locks and lockgroups across a shared file system. Now I want to create a simple command-line utility that uses this functionality.

To start, we can create a simple runone() function that leverages MutliLock, e.g.,

def _runone(func, lockname, lockgroup, basedir, *args, **kwargs):
    ''' run one, AND ONLY ONE, instance (respect locking)

        >>> 
        >>> _runone(print, 'lock', 'locks', '.', 'hello world')
        >>> 
    '''
    lock = MultiLock(lockname, lockgroup, basedir)
    if lock.acquire():
        func(*args, **kwargs)
        lock.release()

Any python function (with its *args and **kwargs) will be called if (and-only-if) the named lock was acquired. At a minimum, this guarantees that one (and only one) instance of the function can be called at a given time.

To make this slightly more magic, we can wrap this as a decorator function -- a decorator that accepts arguments,

def runone(lockname='lock', lockgroup='.locks', basedir='.'):
    ''' decorator with closure
        returns a function that will run one, and only one, instance per lockgroup
    '''
    def wrapper(fn):
        def new_fn(*args, **kwargs):
            return _runone(fn, lockname, lockgroup, basedir, *args, **kwargs)
        return new_fn
    return wrapper

The closure is used so that we can pass arguments to the decorator function, e.g.,

@runone('lock', 'lockgroup', '/shared/path')
def spam():
    #do work, only if we acquire /shared/path/lockgroup/lock 

Putting this all together, we can create a command-line utility that will execute any command-line program if (and only if) it acquires a named lock in the lockgroup. With such a utility we can add concurrency and fault-tolerance to any shell script that can be executed across all nodes in a cluster. This code is also available in this github repo.

import time, sys, subprocess, optparse, logging
from multilock import MultiLock

def runone(lockname='lock', lockgroup='.locks', basedir='.'):
    ''' decorator with closure
        returns a function that will run one, and only one, instance per lockgroup
    '''
    def wrapper(fn):
        def new_fn(*args, **kwargs):
            return _runone(fn, lockname, lockgroup, basedir, *args, **kwargs)
        return new_fn
    return wrapper


def _runone(func, lockname, lockgroup, basedir, *args, **kwargs):
    ''' run one, AND ONLY ONE, instance (respect locking)

        >>> 
        >>> _runone(print, 'lock', 'locks', '.', 'hello world')
        >>> 
    '''
    lock = MultiLock(lockname, lockgroup, basedir)
    if lock.acquire():
        func(*args, **kwargs)
        lock.release()


if __name__ == '__main__':

    p = optparse.OptionParser('usage: %prog [options] cmd [args]')
    p.add_option('--lockname', '-l', dest="lockname", default='lock', help="the lock name, should be unique for this instance")
    p.add_option('--lockgroup', '-g', dest="lockgroup", default='.locks', help="the lockgroup, a collection of locks independent locks")
    p.add_option('--basedir', '-d', dest="basedir", default='.', help="the base directory where the lock files should be written")
    p.add_option('--wait', '-w', dest="wait", default=None, help="optional, wait (up till the number of seconds specified) for all locks to complete in the lockgroup")
    options, args = p.parse_args()

    if options.wait:
        lock = MultiLock(options.lockname, options.lockgroup, options.basedir)
        lock.wait(options.wait)
        sys.exit()
    
    @runone(options.lockname, options.lockgroup, options.basedir)
    def _main():
        subprocess.call(args)

    _main() 
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